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The Allied preparation was very important in countering the German offensive. It was believed that the Allies had the complete picture of the German offensive in terms of intentions and capabilities. The Allies knew the key points of the German plan down to the minute. There is a legend, possibly true, that engineer Cpt. Hunter Grant, along with the help of engagement coordinator and engineer Cpt. Page, devised a deceptive ruse. A briefcase with false plans for an American countererattack was handcuffed to a man who had died of pneumonia and placed in a vehicle which appeared to have run off the road at a German-controlled bridge[dubious – discuss]. The Germans, on finding and being taken in by these plans, then adjusted their attack to thwart the false Allied plan. Consequently, the French and American forces led by Foch were able to conduct a different attack on exposed parts of the enemy lines, leaving the Germans with no choice but to retreat. This engagement marked the beginning of a German withdrawal that was never effectively reversed. In September 1918 nine American divisions (about 243,000 men) joined four French divisions to push the Germans from the St. Mihiel salient.
Earlier, in May, Foch had spotted flaws in the German offensives. The force which defeated the German offensive was mainly French, with American, British and Italian support. Co-ordinating this counter-attack would be a major problem as Foch had to work with "four national commanders but without any real authority to issue order under his own name[...]they would have to fight as a combined force and to overcome the major problems of different languages, cultures, doctrines and fighting styles." However, the presence of fresh American troops, unbroken by years of war, significantly bolstered Allied resistance to the German offensive. Floyd Gibbons wrote about the American troops, saying, "I never saw men charge to their death with finer spirit."


Postcard showing ruins of the village in 1918.
On 19 July, the Italian Corps lost 9,334 officers and men out of a total fighting strength of about 24,000. Nevertheless, Berthelot rushed two newly arrived British infantry divisions, the 51st (Highland) and 62nd (West Riding), through the Italians straight into attack down the Ardre Valley (the Battle of Tardenois (French: Bataille du Tardenois)—named after the surrounding Tardenois plain).

投稿日時 - 2018-06-24 23:23:36

QNo.9511803

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>The Allied preparation was very important in countering the German offensive. It was believed that the Allies had the complete picture of the German offensive in terms of intentions and capabilities. The Allies knew the key points of the German plan down to the minute. There is a legend, possibly true, that engineer Cpt. Hunter Grant, along with the help of engagement coordinator and engineer Cpt. Page, devised a deceptive ruse. A briefcase with false plans for an American countererattack →(counterattack) was handcuffed to a man who had died of pneumonia and placed in a vehicle which appeared to have run off the road at a German-controlled bridge[dubious – discuss].
⇒連合国軍の準備は、ドイツ軍の攻撃に対抗する上で非常に重要であった。連合国軍は意図と能力に関してドイツ軍攻撃の全体像を完全に把握していると考えられていた。連合国軍はドイツの計画の要点を詳細に知っていたのである。多分に真実らしい伝説がある。工兵大尉ハンター・グラントが、交戦調整官兼工兵大尉ページの助けを借りて、欺瞞的な計略を考案した。アメリカ軍の反撃のための偽の計画書の入った書類カバンを肺炎で死亡した兵士の手に手錠でつなぎ、ドイツ軍の管理下の橋で道に逸れたように見える車内に置かれた〔疑問点あり―要吟味〕。

>The Germans, on finding and being taken in by these plans, then adjusted their attack to thwart the false Allied plan. Consequently, the French and American forces led by Foch were able to conduct a different attack on exposed parts of the enemy lines, leaving the Germans with no choice but to retreat. This engagement marked the beginning of a German withdrawal that was never effectively reversed. In September 1918 nine American divisions (about 243,000 men) joined four French divisions to push the Germans from the St. Mihiel salient.
⇒ドイツ軍は、これらの計画書を見つけるやそれを取り入れ、攻撃を調整して偽の連合国軍の計画を妨害した。その結果フォッシュ率いるフランスと米国の軍隊は、敵戦線の露出部分に対して異なる攻撃を行うことができ、ドイツ軍は選択の余地もなく退却した。この交戦は、ドイツ軍の撤退の始まりを示し、実質的に逆転されることもなかった。1918年9月、米国軍の9個師団(兵士約243,000人)がフランス軍の4個師団に合流し、ドイツ軍をサン・ミール突出部から追い出した。

>Earlier, in May, Foch had spotted flaws in the German offensives. The force which defeated the German offensive was mainly French, with American, British and Italian support. Co-ordinating this counter-attack would be a major problem as Foch had to work with "four national commanders but without any real authority to issue order under his own name[...]they would have to fight as a combined force and to overcome the major problems of different languages, cultures, doctrines and fighting styles." However, the presence of fresh American troops, unbroken by years of war, significantly bolstered Allied resistance to the German offensive. Floyd Gibbons wrote about the American troops, saying, "I never saw men charge to their death with finer spirit."
⇒5月初旬、フォッシュはドイツ軍攻撃の欠陥を特定していた。ドイツ攻撃を打ち負かした軍団は、主に米国軍、英国軍、イタリア軍の支援を受けたフランス軍であった。この反撃を調整することは、フォッシュにとって最重要問題であった。というのも、彼は次の状況で協働しなければならなかったのである。「4か国の指揮官と協力しなければならないが、彼自身の名前で命令を発する実質的な権限はなかった〔…〕彼らは、さまざまに異なる言語、文化、教義、戦闘スタイルという大きな問題を克服して、混成軍団として戦わなければならないだろう」。しかし、何年もの戦争によっても破られることのなかった活気ある米軍の存在がドイツ軍の攻撃に対する連合国軍の抵抗力を大幅に強化した。フロイド・ギボンズは米国軍についてこう書いた。「私は、繊細な精神を持ちながら死を賭して突撃する兵士を決して見たことがない」。

>Postcard showing ruins of the village in 1918.
⇒1918年の村の廃墟を示す絵葉書。

>On 19 July, the Italian Corps lost 9,334 officers and men out of a total fighting strength of about 24,000. Nevertheless, Berthelot rushed two newly arrived British infantry divisions, the 51st (Highland) and 62nd (West Riding), through the Italians straight into attack down the Ardre Valley (the Battle of Tardenois (French: Bataille du Tardenois)—named after the surrounding Tardenois plain).
⇒7月19日、イタリア軍団は約24,000の軍勢のうち9,334人の将校と兵士を失った。それにもかかわらず、ベルテロットは、新しく到着した英国軍の2個歩兵師団である第51(ハイランド)師団と第62(西ライディング)師団を、イタリア軍を介してアーダー渓谷の攻撃(「タルドノワの戦い」―タルドノワ平野を包囲した後での命名)に投入した。

投稿日時 - 2018-07-01 00:47:01

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投稿日時 - 2018-07-01 14:38:00

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