After Scheidemann′s resignation, a new coalition government was formed under Gustav Bauer. President Friedrich Ebert knew that Germany was in an impossible situation. Although he shared his countrymen's disgust with the treaty, he was sober enough to consider the possibility that the government would not be in a position to reject it. He believed that if Germany refused to sign the treaty, the Allies would invade Germany from the west—and there was no guarantee that the army would be able to make a stand in the event of an invasion. With this in mind, he asked Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg if the army was capable of any meaningful resistance in the event the Allies resumed the war. If there was even the slightest chance that the army could hold out, Ebert intended to recommend against ratifying the treaty. Hindenburg—after prodding from his chief of staff, Wilhelm Groener—concluded the army could not resume the war even on a limited scale. However, rather than inform Ebert himself, he had Groener inform the government that the army would be in an untenable position in the event of renewed hostilities. Upon receiving this, the new government recommended signing the treaty. The National Assembly voted in favour of signing the treaty by 237 to 138, with five abstentions (there were 421 delegates in total). This result was wired to Clemenceau just hours before the deadline. Foreign minister Hermann Müller and colonial minister Johannes Bell travelled to Versailles to sign the treaty on behalf of Germany. The treaty was signed on 28 June 1919 and ratified by the National Assembly on 9 July by a vote of 209 to 116.Conservatives, nationalists and ex-military leaders condemned the treaty. Politicians of the Weimar Republic who supported the treaty, socialists, communists, and Jews were viewed with suspicion as persons of questionable loyalty.[citation needed] It was rumored that Jews had not supported the war and had played a role in selling Germany out to its enemies. Those who seemed to benefit from a weakened Germany and the newly formed Weimar Republic were regarded as having "stabbed Germany in the back". Those who instigated unrest and strikes in the critical military industries on the home front or who opposed German nationalism were seen to have contributed to Germany's defeat.[citation needed] These theories were given credence by the fact that when Germany surrendered in November 1918, its armies were still on French and Belgian territory. Furthermore, on the Eastern Front, Germany had already won the war against Russia and concluded the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. In the West, Germany had seemed to have come close to winning the war with the Spring Offensive earlier in 1918. Its failure was blamed on strikes in the arms industry at a critical moment of the offensive, leaving soldiers with an inadequate supply of materiel. The strikes were regarded by nationalists as having been instigated by traitors, with the Jews taking most of the blame.

投稿日時 - 2018-11-13 15:17:12




>After Scheidemann′s resignation ~ event of an invasion.
⇒シャイデマンの辞任後、新たな連立政権がグスタフ・バウアーのもとで結成された。フリードリヒ・エバート大統領は、ドイツが不可能な状況にあることを承知していた。彼は、この条約に対する国民の嫌悪感を共有していたが、政府がそれを拒否できる立場にないことの可能性を考慮するほど十分に冷静であった。彼はドイツが条約に署名することを拒否すれば、連合国軍が西からドイツを侵略するだろう ― そして、その侵略の際ドイツ軍隊がそれに耐えることができるという保証はない、と信じていた。

>With this in mind ~ event of renewed hostilities.
⇒彼はこのことを念頭において、連合国軍が戦争を再開した場合に軍隊が有意義な抵抗力を持つことができるかどうかをパウル・フォン・ヒンデンブルク陸軍元帥に尋ねた。軍隊が逃げ出すような可能性がいかにわずかであっても、エバートは条約の批准を勧めようとしていた。ヒンデンブルクは、― 彼の配下の参謀長ヴィルヘルム・グロエネルをせっついてみた後で ― 方面軍は、限定された規模でも戦争を再開することはできない、と結論づけた。しかし、彼はそれをエバート自身に知らせるのではなく、グロエネルをして、軍隊が新たな敵対行為の立場にもちこたえられないことを政府に通知させた。

>Upon receiving this ~ condemned the treaty.

>Politicians of the Weimar Republic ~ Germany's defeat. [citation needed]

>These theories were given ~ taking most of the blame.

投稿日時 - 2018-11-15 10:23:55



投稿日時 - 2018-11-15 13:49:06