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The First Battle of Champagne (French: 1ère Bataille de Champagne) was fought from 20 December 1914 – 17 March 1915 in World War I in the Champagne region of France and was the second offensive by the Allies against the Germans since mobile warfare had ended after the First Battle of Ypres in Flanders (19 October – 22 November 1914). The battle was fought by the French Fourth Army and the German 3rd Army. The offensive was part of a strategy by the French army to attack the Noyon Salient, a large bulge in the new Western Front, which ran from Switzerland to the North Sea. The First Battle of Artois began on the northern flank of the salient on 17 December and the offensive against the southern flank in Champagne began three days later. By early November, the German offensive in Flanders had ended and the French began to consider large offensive operations. Attacks by the French would assist the Russian army and force the Germans to keep more forces in the west. After studying the possibilities for an offensive, the Operations Bureau of Grand Quartier Général (GQG: the French army headquarters) reported on 15 November. The Bureau recommended to General Joseph Joffre a dual offensive, with attacks in Artois and Champagne, to crush the Noyon salient. The report noted that the German offensive in the west was over and four to six corps were being moved to the Eastern Front.
Despite shortages of equipment, artillery and ammunition, which led Joffre to doubt that a decisive success could be obtained, it was impossible to allow the Germans freely to concentrate their forces against Russia. Principal attacks were to be made in Artois by the Tenth Army towards Cambrai and by the Fourth Army (General Fernand de Langle de Cary) in Champagne, from Suippes towards Rethel and Mézières, with supporting attacks elsewhere. The objectives were to deny the Germans an opportunity to move troops and to break through in several places, to force the Germans to retreat. After minor skirmishes, the battle began on 20 December 1914 when the XVII and I Colonial Corps attacked and made small gains. On 21 December, the XII Corps failed to advance, because most gaps in the German barbed wire were found to be covered by machine-guns. The attack by XII Corps was stopped and the infantry began mining operations, as the artillery bombarded German defences. After several days of attacks, which obtained more small pieces of territory, the main effort was moved by de Cary to the centre near Perthes and a division was added between XVII Corps and I Colonial Corps. On 27 December, Joffre, sent the IV Corps to the Fourth Army area, which made it possible for de Langle to add another I Corps division to the front line.

First Battle of Champagne 第一次シャンパーニュ会戦

投稿日時 - 2019-01-08 22:14:57

QNo.9575764

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>The First Battle of Champagne (French: 1ère Bataille de Champagne) was fought from 20 December 1914 – 17 March 1915 in World War I in the Champagne region of France and was the second offensive by the Allies against the Germans since mobile warfare had ended after the First Battle of Ypres in Flanders (19 October – 22 November 1914). The battle was fought by the French Fourth Army and the German 3rd Army. The offensive was part of a strategy by the French army to attack the Noyon Salient, a large bulge in the new Western Front, which ran from Switzerland to the North Sea. The First Battle of Artois began on the northern flank of the salient on 17 December and the offensive against the southern flank in Champagne began three days later.
⇒「第一次シャンパーニュ会戦」(フランス語:1ère Bataille de Champagne)は、フランスのシャンパーニュ地方で第一次世界大戦中の1914年12月20日‐1915年3月17日に戦われた。そして、それはフランドルの「第一次イープル会戦」(10月19日‐1914年11月22日)の機動戦終了後以来、ドイツ軍に対する連合国軍による第2の攻勢であった。戦いは、フランス第4方面軍とドイツ第3方面軍によって戦われた。この攻撃は、スイスから北海まで通る新しい西部戦線の大きな突出部分であるノヨン突出部を攻撃するための、フランス方面軍による戦略の一環であった。「第一次アルトワ会戦」の最初の戦いが12月17日に突出部の北側面で始まり、シャンパーニュの南側面に対する攻撃は3日後に始まった。

>By early November, the German offensive in Flanders had ended and the French began to consider large offensive operations. Attacks by the French would assist the Russian army and force the Germans to keep more forces in the west. After studying the possibilities for an offensive, the Operations Bureau of Grand Quartier Général (GQG: the French army headquarters) reported on 15 November. The Bureau recommended to General Joseph Joffre a dual offensive, with attacks in Artois and Champagne, to crush the Noyon salient. The report noted that the German offensive in the west was over and four to six corps were being moved to the Eastern Front.
⇒11月上旬までにフランドルでのドイツ軍攻撃は終り、フランス軍は大規模な攻撃作戦を検討し始めた。フランス軍による攻撃は、ドイツ軍をして西部(戦線)により多くの軍隊を駐留させなければならなくなり、ロシア方面軍を支援することになるだろう。攻撃の可能性を検討した後、フランス方面軍本部(GQG)の作戦局は11月15日に(次のような)報告をした。作戦事務局は、ジョゼフ・ジョフル将軍に、アルトワとシャンパーニュの攻撃でノヨン突出部を粉砕するための二重攻撃を勧告した。報告書は、西部でのドイツ軍の攻撃を切り上げて4個ないし6個軍団が東部戦線に移動したことを指摘した。

>Despite shortages of equipment, artillery and ammunition, which led Joffre to doubt that a decisive success could be obtained, it was impossible to allow the Germans freely to concentrate their forces against Russia. Principal attacks were to be made in Artois by the Tenth Army towards Cambrai and by the Fourth Army (General Fernand de Langle de Cary) in Champagne, from Suippes towards Rethel and Mézières, with supporting attacks elsewhere. The objectives were to deny the Germans an opportunity to move troops and to break through in several places, to force the Germans to retreat.
⇒機材や装備、銃砲、弾薬が不足しているので、ジョフルにとっては決定的な成功が得られるかどうか疑わしかったが、ドイツ軍にとってもロシアに軍団を存分集中することは不可能であった。第10方面軍はアルトワからカンブレへ向かって、そして第4方面軍(フェルナン・ド・ラングル・ド・カリー将軍)はシャンパーニュでシュイプからレテルやメジェールへ向って、他の場所での攻撃を支援しながら、主要攻撃を行うことにした。その目的は、ドイツ軍に軍隊を移動させないようにし、諸々の場所(戦場)で突破する機会を与えないこと、ドイツ軍に後退を余儀なくさせることであった。

>After minor skirmishes, the battle began on 20 December 1914 when the XVII and I Colonial Corps attacked and made small gains. On 21 December, the XII Corps failed to advance, because most gaps in the German barbed wire were found to be covered by machine-guns. The attack by XII Corps was stopped and the infantry began mining operations, as the artillery bombarded German defences. After several days of attacks, which obtained more small pieces of territory, the main effort was moved by de Cary to the centre near Perthes and a division was added between XVII Corps and I Colonial Corps. On 27 December, Joffre, sent the IV Corps to the Fourth Army area, which made it possible for de Langle to add another I Corps division to the front line.
⇒軽い小競り合いの後、戦いは1914年12月20日に始まり、第XVII軍団と第I植民地軍団が攻撃を行って小さな利益を得た。12月21日、ドイツ軍の有刺鉄線の隙間はほとんど機関銃で覆われていたため、第XII軍団は前進できなかった。第XII軍団による攻撃は中止され、砲兵隊がドイツ軍の防衛線を砲撃するのに合わせて、歩兵隊が地雷敷設作業を開始した。数日間の攻撃の後、細切れの領土を獲得したが、(さらに)ド・カリーは主な努力をパルテス近くの中央部に移動し、第XVII軍団と第I植民地軍団の間に1個師団を追加した。12月27日、ジョフルは第IV軍団を第4方面軍地域に派遣した。これによって、ド・ラングルが別の第I軍団師団を最前線に追加することが可能になった。

投稿日時 - 2019-01-15 10:32:25

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回答ありがとうございました。

投稿日時 - 2019-01-15 19:14:43

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