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Their submission persuaded 3,000 tents of Zaian to follow and within six weeks just 2,500 tents remained opposed to French rule. Hammou was killed in Spring 1921 by a Berber war party led by Hassan and soon after a combined French and Berber attack on Bekrit defeated the last remaining Zaian force, ending the seven-year-long war. After the war, French expansion in the area continued and they brought almost the entire Middle Atlas under their control by June 1922. Though they held him in high regard, Lyautey and Henrys blamed Laverdure for the defeat, with the latter describing the Lieutenant-Colonel's march from Khénifra as a "poorly prepared and poorly executed" "act of indiscipline". Laverdure was thought to have underestimated the ability of the Berbers to operate offensively in mountainous terrain against his column. His motive for the "inexcusable imprudence" of disobeying orders is thought to have been for personal glory and to bring the war to an early conclusion. One of the survivors of the battle, Jean Pichon, said that Laverdure was "haunted by the obsessive temptation" of defeating Hammou. Lyautey stated, in a letter to Minister of War Alexandre Millerand, that Laverdure, had he not died on the field, would have deserved "the most severe punishment" at the hands of a military tribunal.
It is thought that Laverdure's actions may have been influenced by a school of thought, advocated by General Charles Mangin, that bold movements would intimidate the North African tribes into submission. This school of thought was critical of Lyautey's campaign of negotiation backed up by the threat of military power, arguing that it cost too many casualties and that a bolder commander should be appointed instead. Mangin's opinions had many advocates among the French officers of the colonial forces in Morocco, keen to end the war quickly and transfer to the Western Front, were praised by newspapers, books and journal articles in France and had the support of part of the Chamber of Deputies. Lyautey believed that he had to constantly battle against this school of thought and could not hope to defeat the men who followed it as they were "self-satisfied with its infallibility and convinced of the pitiful inferiority of those who do not submit to it blindly".

投稿日時 - 2019-02-11 01:29:36

QNo.9586638

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>Their submission persuaded 3,000 tents of Zaian to follow and within six weeks just 2,500 tents remained opposed to French rule. Hammou was killed in Spring 1921 by a Berber war party led by Hassan and soon after a combined French and Berber attack on Bekrit defeated the last remaining Zaian force, ending the seven-year-long war. After the war, French expansion in the area continued and they brought almost the entire Middle Atlas under their control by June 1922.
⇒ザイアン軍の3,000軒のテントに対して、彼らの服従に従うよう説得したが、6週間の内ではちょうど2500軒のテントがフランスの統治に反対(のまま)だった。ハムーは1921年春にハッサンが率いるベルベル戦争党一派によって殺されたが、その直後にベクリットに対するフランスとベルベルの複合隊攻撃が最後のザイア軍残党を破り、7年間の戦争を終えた。戦後、フランスの拡大は続き、1922年6月までに中部アトラスのほぼ全域を統制下に置いた。

>Though they held him in high regard, Lyautey and Henrys blamed Laverdure for the defeat, with the latter describing the Lieutenant-Colonel's march from Khénifra as a "poorly prepared and poorly executed" "act of indiscipline". Laverdure was thought to have underestimated the ability of the Berbers to operate offensively in mountainous terrain against his column.
⇒リョーテイやヘンリスは、ラベルデュールを尊重してはいたが、今回の敗北を非難して、この中佐(ラベルデュール)のケニフラからの行軍は、「準備不十分にして、実行不十分」「無秩序な行為」であった、と述べた。ラベルデュールは、彼の縦隊に対して、山岳地帯で攻撃活動するベルベル軍の能力を過小評価していたと考えられる。

>His motive for the "inexcusable imprudence" of disobeying orders is thought to have been for personal glory and to bring the war to an early conclusion. One of the survivors of the battle, Jean Pichon, said that Laverdure was "haunted by the obsessive temptation" of defeating Hammou. Lyautey stated, in a letter to Minister of War Alexandre Millerand, that Laverdure, had he not died on the field, would have deserved "the most severe punishment" at the hands of a military tribunal.
⇒命令に従わないという「許し難い愚行」に対する彼の動機は、個人的な栄光のためであり、戦争を早く結論づけるためであったと考えられている。ラベルデュールはハムーを倒すという「強迫的な誘惑にとりつかれて」いたと、この戦いの生き残り兵の一人ジャン・ピションは述べた。リョーテイは、アレクサンドル・ミレランド戦争大臣宛の手紙で、ラベルデュールはたとえ戦場で死ななかったとしても、軍事法廷の手で(裁かれる)「最も厳しい処罰」に値したことであろう、と述べた。

>It is thought that Laverdure's actions may have been influenced by a school of thought, advocated by General Charles Mangin, that bold movements would intimidate the North African tribes into submission. This school of thought was critical of Lyautey's campaign of negotiation backed up by the threat of military power, arguing that it cost too many casualties and that a bolder commander should be appointed instead.
⇒ラベルデュールの行動は、大胆な動きが北アフリカの部族に服従を迫れるであろうという、シャルル・マンジン将軍によって提唱された考え方の一派によって影響されたかもしれないと考えられている。この思想の党派は、軍事力の脅威に裏打ちされたリョーテイの交渉戦法に批判的であり、それは輩出する犠牲者が多すぎるので、代わりに大胆な指揮官を任命すべきだと主張したのである。

>Mangin's opinions had many advocates among the French officers of the colonial forces in Morocco, keen to end the war quickly and transfer to the Western Front, were praised by newspapers, books and journal articles in France and had the support of part of the Chamber of Deputies. Lyautey believed that he had to constantly battle against this school of thought and could not hope to defeat the men who followed it as they were "self-satisfied with its infallibility and convinced of the pitiful inferiority of those who do not submit to it blindly".
⇒マンジンの意見は、戦争を迅速に終えて、西部戦線に移動することを切望するというもので、モロッコ植民地軍のフランス人将校の間に多くの支持者があり、フランスの新聞、書籍、およびジャーナル記事によって賞賛され、国会議員の一部の支持を得ていた。リョーテイは、この考えの派閥と絶えざる戦いを続けなければならないが、それに追随する人々は「その確実性に自信があり、黙ってそれを承服しない人々の哀れな劣等性を納得していた」ので、これに打ち勝つことは望むべくもないと信じていた。

投稿日時 - 2019-02-17 21:29:10

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回答ありがとうございました。

投稿日時 - 2019-02-19 00:28:56

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