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Hindenburg's Ninth Army, under General August von Mackensen, was on the border between Poland and Silesia. Intercepted, decoded Russian wireless messages revealed that Silesia would be invaded on 14 November. Hindenburg and Ludendorff decided not to meet the attack head-on, but to seize the initiative by shifting their Ninth Army north by railway to the border south of the German fortress at Thorn, where they would be reinforced with two corps transferred from Eighth Army. The enlarged Ninth Army would then attack the Russian right flank. In ten days Ninth Army was moved north by running 80 trains every day. Conrad von Hotzendorf, the Austrian commander, transferred the Austrian Second Army from the Carpathians to take over the German Ninth Army's former position.
General Nikolai Ruzsky had recently assumed command of the Russian Northwest Army Group defending Warsaw. Ruzsky had under his command General Paul von Rennenkampf's Russian First Army, most of which was on the right bank of the Vistula River; only one corps was on the left bank. Ruzsky also directed the Russian Second Army, under General Scheidemann, which was positioned in front of the city of Łódź. Both armies were still in summer clothing, and the Russians were short of artillery ammunition. The Russians had no inkling that the Germans had moved north, so they were stunned on November 11 when Mackensen's German Ninth Army struck V Siberia Corps of Rennenkampf's First Army, his only unit on the left bank of the Vistula. The Siberians were routed; 12,000 were taken prisoner. The Siberians were unable to dig effective defensive positions because they had few shovels and the ground froze at night. The Germans were forcing open a corridor between Łódź and Warsaw, creating a 50 km (31 mi) gap between the Russian First and Second Armies. Scheidemann's Russian Second Army retreated eastward towards Łódź, they were threatened with encirclement. Rennenkampf wanted to support V Siberia Corps by moving more men across the Vistula, but Ruzsky suspected that the target was Warsaw, so First Army remained in place.
Grand Duke Nicholas's primary objective was saving Second Army and avoiding a repeat of the disaster at Tannenberg. On 16 November he ordered Wenzel von Plehve's Russian Fifth Army to abandon the proposed offensive into Silesia and to move northward towards Łódź; they marched 116 km (72 mi) in only two days. As soon as Hindenburg saw the transcript of this order, he knew that his maneuver had succeeded. Now seven Russian corps were defending the city. Plehve smashed into Mackensen's right flank on November 18 in bitter winter conditions (at times the temperature dropped as low as 10 °F (-12 °C).

投稿日時 - 2019-02-11 01:35:34

QNo.9586641

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>Hindenburg's Ninth Army, under General August von Mackensen, was on the border between Poland and Silesia. Intercepted, decoded Russian wireless messages revealed that Silesia would be invaded on 14 November. Hindenburg and Ludendorff decided not to meet the attack head-on, but to seize the initiative by shifting their Ninth Army north by railway to the border south of the German fortress at Thorn, where they would be reinforced with two corps transferred from Eighth Army. The enlarged Ninth Army would then attack the Russian right flank. In ten days Ninth Army was moved north by running 80 trains every day. Conrad von Hotzendorf, the Austrian commander, transferred the Austrian Second Army from the Carpathians to take over the German Ninth Army's former position.
⇒ヒンデンブルクの第9方面軍は、アウグスト・フォン・マッケンゼン将軍の麾下ポーランドとシレジア間の国境にいた。ロシア軍に傍受され、解読された無線電信によってシレジアが11月14日に侵攻されることが明らかになった。ヒンデンブルクとルデンドルフは、攻撃に真っ向から立ち向かうのではなく、第9方面軍をソーンにあるドイツ軍要塞の南国境に向けて鉄道で北へ移動させて、そこで第8方面軍から移送される2個軍団の補強を受けることで主導権を握る、という決心をした。それから拡大された第8方面軍はロシア軍の右側面を攻撃することにした。第9方面軍は10日の間毎日80本の列車を走らせて北に移動した。オーストリア軍の司令官コンラッド・フォン・ホッツェンドルフは、オーストリア第2方面軍をカルパチアから移転させ、ドイツ第9方面軍の元の陣地を引き継いだ。

>General Nikolai Ruzsky had recently assumed command of the Russian Northwest Army Group defending Warsaw. Ruzsky had under his command General Paul von Rennenkampf's Russian First Army, most of which was on the right bank of the Vistula River; only one corps was on the left bank. Ruzsky also directed the Russian Second Army, under General Scheidemann, which was positioned in front of the city of Łódź. Both armies were still in summer clothing, and the Russians were short of artillery ammunition. The Russians had no inkling that the Germans had moved north, so they were stunned on November 11 when Mackensen's German Ninth Army struck V Siberia Corps of Rennenkampf's First Army, his only unit on the left bank of the Vistula.
⇒ニコライ・ルツキー将軍は、ワルシャワを守るロシアの北西部方面軍グループの指揮を引き受けたところであった。ルツキーの指揮下にはパウル・フォン・レンネンカンプ将軍のロシア第1方面軍があったが、そのほとんどはビスツラ川の右岸堤防にいた。左岸には1個軍団しかいなかった。ルツキーはまた、シャイデマン将軍の下でロシア第2方面軍を指揮していたが、それはウッチの街の真ん前に位置していた。両方面軍ともまだ夏服を着ていて、さらにロシア軍には砲弾の弾薬が不足していた。ロシア軍は、ドイツ軍が北へ移動したことに気づかずにいたので、11月11日にマッケンセンのドイツ第9方面軍が、ビスツラ川左岸にいた唯一の部隊であるレンヌカンプフの第1方面軍第Vシベリア軍団を攻撃したときに動転した。

>The Siberians were routed; 12,000 were taken prisoner. The Siberians were unable to dig effective defensive positions because they had few shovels and the ground froze at night. The Germans were forcing open a corridor between Łódź and Warsaw, creating a 50 km (31 mi) gap between the Russian First and Second Armies. Scheidemann's Russian Second Army retreated eastward towards Łódź, they were threatened with encirclement. Rennenkampf wanted to support V Siberia Corps by moving more men across the Vistula, but Ruzsky suspected that the target was Warsaw, so First Army remained in place.
⇒シベリア軍は惨敗し、12,000人が捕虜になった。シベリア軍はシャベルをほとんど持たず、夜は地面が凍てつくので、効果的な守備陣地を掘ることもできなかった。ドイツ軍は強制的にウッチとワルシャワの間に回廊を広げ、ロシア第1方面軍と第2方面軍の間に50キロ(31マイル)の隙間を作った。シャイデマンのロシア第2方面軍はウッチに向かって東へ後退したが、包囲(攻撃)に脅かされていた。レンネンカンプフは、ビスツラを越えてもっと多くの兵士を動かすことで第Vシベリア軍団を支援したいと思ったが、ルツキーはワルシャワが標的であると疑ったので第1方面軍をその場に残した。

>Grand Duke Nicholas's primary objective was saving Second Army and avoiding a repeat of the disaster at Tannenberg. On 16 November he ordered Wenzel von Plehve's Russian Fifth Army to abandon the proposed offensive into Silesia and to move northward towards Łódź; they marched 116 km (72 mi) in only two days. As soon as Hindenburg saw the transcript of this order, he knew that his maneuver had succeeded. Now seven Russian corps were defending the city. Plehve smashed into Mackensen's right flank on November 18 in bitter winter conditions (at times the temperature dropped as low as 10 °F (-12 °C).
⇒ニコラス大公の主な目的は、第2方面軍を救い、タンネンベルクでの災厄の繰り返しを避けることであった。彼は11月16日、提案されたシレジアへの攻撃を放棄し、ウッチに向かって北へ移動するようヴェンゼル・フォン・プレーブのロシア第5方面軍に命じた。彼らはたった2日で116キロ(72マイル)行進した。ヒンデンブルクがこの命令書の写しを見るや否や、彼の作戦が成功したことを知った。目下、7個のロシア軍団が街を守っていた。11月18日、寒い冬の気温の条件下(時々最低10°F〈-12℃〉まで下がった)で、プレーブはマッケンゼンの右側面を撃破した。

投稿日時 - 2019-02-19 08:52:56

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回答ありがとうございました。

投稿日時 - 2019-02-20 02:11:06

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