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At the beginning of the 20th century, the Ottoman Empire had a reputation as the sick man of Europe. After the Balkan Wars of 1912 and 1913, the French, British and Germans had offered financial aid. In December 1913, the Germans sent a military mission to Constantinople, headed by General Otto Liman von Sanders. The geographical position of the Ottoman Empire meant that Russia, France and Britain had a significant interest in Ottoman neutrality. During the Sarajevo Crisis in 1914, German diplomats offered Turkey an anti-Russian alliance and territorial gains, when the pro-British faction in the Cabinet was isolated, due to the British ambassador's absence. On 30 July 1914, two days after the outbreak of the war in Europe, the Ottoman leaders, unaware that the British might enter a European war, agreed to a secret Ottoman-German Alliance against Russia, although it did not require them to undertake military action.
On 2 August, the British requisitioned the modern battleships Sultân Osmân-ı Evvel and Reşadiye which British shipyards had been building for the Ottoman Navy, alienating pro-British elements. The German government offered SMS Goeben and SMS Breslau as replacements. In the Pursuit of Goeben and Breslau, the ships escaped when the Ottoman government opened the Dardanelles to them, despite international law requiring a neutral party to block military shipping. In September, the British naval mission to the Ottomans was recalled and Rear Admiral Wilhelm Souchon of the Imperial German Navy took command of the Ottoman navy. The German naval presence, and the success of the German armies, gave the pro-German faction in the Ottoman government enough influence to declare war on Russia. In October 1914, following an incident on 27 September, when the British Dardanelles squadron had seized an Ottoman torpedo boat, the German commander of the Dardanelles fortifications ordered the passage closed, adding to the impression that the Ottomans were pro-German. Hostilities began on 28 October, when the Ottoman fleet, including Goeben and Breslau (flying the Ottoman flag and renamed Yavûz Sultân Selîm and Midilli but still commanded by German officers and manned by German crews) conducted the Black Sea Raid. Odessa and Sevastopol were bombarded, and a Russian minelayer and gunboat were sunk. The Ottomans refused an Allied demand that they expel the German missions and on 31 October 1914, formally joined the Central Powers. Russia declared war on Turkey on 2 November and the British ambassador left Constantinople the next day.

投稿日時 - 2019-10-19 19:05:23

QNo.9668820

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>At the beginning of the 20th century, the Ottoman Empire had a reputation as the sick man of Europe. After the Balkan Wars of 1912 and 1913, the French, British and Germans had offered financial aid. In December 1913, the Germans sent a military mission to Constantinople, headed by General Otto Liman von Sanders. The geographical position of the Ottoman Empire meant that Russia, France and Britain had a significant interest in Ottoman neutrality.
⇒20世紀初頭、オスマン帝国は「ヨーロッパの病人」としての評判があった。1912年と1913年の「バルカン戦争」後、フランス、英国、ドイツは財政援助を提供していた。1913年12月、ドイツ軍はオットー・リマン・フォン・サンダース将軍が率いる軍事使節をコンスタンティノープルに送った。オスマン帝国の地理的位置(関係)は、ロシア、フランス、英国がオスマン帝国の中立性に大きな関心を持っていることを意味していた。

>During the Sarajevo Crisis in 1914, German diplomats offered Turkey an anti-Russian alliance and territorial gains, when the pro-British faction in the Cabinet was isolated, due to the British ambassador's absence. On 30 July 1914, two days after the outbreak of the war in Europe, the Ottoman leaders, unaware that the British might enter a European war, agreed to a secret Ottoman-German Alliance against Russia, although it did not require them to undertake military action.
⇒1914年の「サラエボ危機」の際、英国大使の不在によって内閣の親英派が孤立したとき、ドイツの外交官がトルコに反ロシア同盟と領土獲得を提案した。1914年7月30日、ヨーロッパでの戦争勃発の2日後、オスマン軍の指導者たちは、英国がヨーロッパ戦争に参加することを知らずに、ロシアに対する秘密のオスマン‐ドイツ同盟に同意したが、彼ら(ドイツ)に軍事行動を取ることは要求しなかった。

>On 2 August, the British requisitioned the modern battleships Sultân Osmân-ı Evvel and Reşadiye which British shipyards had been building for the Ottoman Navy, alienating pro-British elements. The German government offered SMS Goeben and SMS Breslau as replacements. In the Pursuit of Goeben and Breslau, the ships escaped when the Ottoman government opened the Dardanelles to them, despite international law requiring a neutral party to block military shipping.
⇒8月2日、英国は近代的な戦艦スルタン・オスマン‐イベル号とレツァディエ号を接収してオスマン海軍(との対抗)のために英国の造船所を建設していたので、親英的要素を疎遠にしてしまった。(それで)ドイツ政府がSMSゴエベン号とSMSブレスラウ号を代替用に提供した。ゴエベン号とブレスラウ号の追跡に際して、国際法は軍用船舶を差し止めるために中立の(政治的)立場を要請していたにもかかわらず、オスマン政府がダーダネルス海軍を彼らに開放したのでそれらの船艦は脱出した。

>In September, the British naval mission to the Ottomans was recalled and Rear Admiral Wilhelm Souchon of the Imperial German Navy took command of the Ottoman navy. The German naval presence, and the success of the German armies, gave the pro-German faction in the Ottoman government enough influence to declare war on Russia. In October 1914, following an incident on 27 September, when the British Dardanelles squadron had seized an Ottoman torpedo boat, the German commander of the Dardanelles fortifications ordered the passage closed, adding to the impression that the Ottomans were pro-German.
⇒9月、オスマン軍へ送った英国海軍の使節が呼び戻され、ドイツ帝国海軍のヴィルヘルム・スチョン少将がオスマン海軍を指揮した。ドイツ海軍の存在とドイツ方面軍の成功は、オスマン帝国政府の親ドイツ派がロシアに対して戦争宣言するのに十分な影響を与えた。1914年10月、英国軍のダーダネルス艦隊がオスマン帝国の魚雷艇を拿捕した9月27日の事件の後、ダーダネルス要塞のドイツ軍司令官が水路を閉鎖するよう命令したことでオスマン軍が親ドイツ的であるとの印象を倍加した。

>Hostilities began on 28 October, when the Ottoman fleet, including Goeben and Breslau (flying the Ottoman flag and renamed Yavûz Sultân Selîm and Midilli but still commanded by German officers and manned by German crews) conducted the Black Sea Raid. Odessa and Sevastopol were bombarded, and a Russian minelayer and gunboat were sunk. The Ottomans refused an Allied demand that they expel the German missions and on 31 October 1914, formally joined the Central Powers. Russia declared war on Turkey on 2 November and the British ambassador left Constantinople the next day.
⇒敵対行為は、ゴエベン号とブレスラウ号を含むオスマン軍艦隊(オスマン帝国旗を掲げ、ヤヴズ・スルタン・セリム号とミディリ号に改名されたが、ドイツ軍将校が指揮し、ドイツ人乗組員が乗務していた)が、「黒海襲撃」を行った10月28日に始まった。オデッサ号とセバストポル号が砲撃され、ロシア軍の地雷機と砲艦が沈没した。オスマン軍は、ドイツ軍の使節を追放するという連合国の要求を拒否し、1914年10月31日に正式に中央同盟国軍に加わった。ロシアは11月2日にトルコとの戦争を宣言し、英国大使は翌日コンスタンティノープルを去った。

投稿日時 - 2019-10-29 16:42:15

お礼

回答ありがとうございました。

投稿日時 - 2019-10-31 21:48:03

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